Amylase, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (splitting of a compound by addition of a water molecule) of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules such as maltose.  |  As an improvisation of this process, protoplast fusion between the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces fibuligera and S. cerevisiae was performed to obtain a new yeast strain that can directly produce the biofuel from starch, eliminating the need for a saccharification step [81]. It is composed of two types of glucose polymer, amylose and amylopectin. Scientists from Novozymes and Genencore International, two major suppliers of detergent enzymes, have worked on this. Characterization of the enzyme produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was carried out by SDS-PAGE in a Phast Gel gradient (10 to 15%) with the Pharmacia Phast system with standard proteins ranging from 14,400 to 94,000 in molecular weight for comparison [73]. Among the inorganic nitrogen sources, ammonium salts showed better results when compared to sodium nitrate [58]. Ramesh, M. V., & Lonsane, B. K. “Critical importance of moisture content of the medium in alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis M27 in a solid-state fermentation system”. from dhal industry waste”. Also when used for study of structure function relationships and biochemical properties the enzymes have to be in purified form [2]. Among the many enzymes that are widely used α-Amylase has been in increasing demand due to its crucial role of starch hydrolysis and the applications of this hydrolytic action. Upgade, A., Nandeshwar,A., and Samant,L., “Assessment of fungal protease enzyme from French bean using. The hydrolytic activity of α-Amylase can be determined based on the principle that starch and iodine react to form a blue colored complex. Das, S., Singh, S., Sharma, V., & Soni, M. L. “biotechnological applications of industrially important amylase enzyme”. Pyrococcus furiosus produces α-Amylase which shows activity at an optimum pH of 6.5–7.5 [41]. Ballschmiter, M., Fütterer, O., & Liebl, W. “Identification and characterization of a novel intracellular alkaline α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8”. El-Safey, E. M., & Ammar, M. S. “Purification and Characterization of α-amylase Isolated from Aspergillus falvus var. Among amylases α-Amylase is in maximum demand due to its wide range of applications in the industrial front. This was about 9% higher than the activity obtained by using yeast, meat and casein [12]. Haloalkaliphilic α-Amylase isolated from archaebacterium Natronococcus sp. When cool add the chopped sultanas, orange juice and wine yeast and cover the bucket and leave for five days. Starch is a polysaccharide composed of two types of polymers – amylose and amylopectin. 2019 Mar;136:215-221. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.01.019. Purification of α-Amylase produced by a mutant Bacillus subtilis strain was done in a series of steps employing precipitation with 80% ammonium sulfate, TSK Toyopeal column chromatography, ultrafiltration, dialysis and SP Sepharose column chromatography [70]. M Kumar, Jayanthisiddhuraj, Amutha B., Monica Devi D.,. The molecular weight was 45000 daltons. Also when hydrolysis is carried out at higher temperatures, the polymerization of D-glucose to iso-maltose is minimized [9]. α-Amylase can be produced by plant or microbial sources. Ajita Sundarram1, Thirupathihalli Pandurangappa Krishna Murthy1, 1Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore, India. However, studies reveal that SSF is the most appropriate process in developing countries due to the advantages it offers which make it a cost effective production process [20]. SmF allows the utilization of genetically modified organisms to a greater extent than SSF. In B. subtilis 29 the optimum temperature for growth (42°C) was higher by 5°C than that of amylase formation (37°C) [40]. Balkan, B., & Ertan, F. “Production of a-amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum under solid-state fermentation by using some agricultural by-products”. Kobayashi T, Kanai H, Hayashi T, Akiba T, Akaboshi R and Horikoshi K, “Haloalkaliphilic Maltotriose-Forming α-Amylase from the Archaebacterium Natronococcus sp. In addition, most halobacterial enzymes are considerably tolerant to high temperatures and remain stable at room temperature over long periods [4]. Sweetpotato α‐ and β‐amylases were characterized to assist optimization of direct hydrolysis of starch by endogenous amylases. HHS Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UNG-16 was subjected to mutation by both the chemical (EMS) and radiation method. Modern production processes in the textile industry can cause breaking of the warp thread. There are many potential and widely used applications of this enzyme on the industrial front. Bacillus subtilis, a well known producer of alpha amylase was studied for comparison between different fermentation hours and the study revealed a high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours of fermentation [59]. Enzymes used for industrial applications are usually crude preparations and require less downstream processing. One of the mutants, YN9, showed a threefold increase in production of the enzyme when compared to the parent strain [18]. Thermostability is an important characteristic as enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of starch are performed at high temperatures (100–110°C). Hence removal of starch is also important to maintain the whiteness of clothes. These sugars are then fermented by yeast to produce alcohol. This process involves three steps: Gelatinization, Liquefaction, and Saccharification. The optimum pH for production of the enzyme by Bacillus sp. The acidic nature of the process required corrosion resistant material to be used for the equipment and the high temperatures would inactivate the thermolabile enzymes if the hot starch hydrolysate passes into subsequent steps.